Precisely, carat is a unit of measurement of a diamond. Carat is most influential characteristic when it comes to price of diamond. The word carat is derived from carod seed pot which was anciently used to measure the weight of the stone. Generally, people think that larger the size of the diamond, higher will be its carat weight; but that is not true! Many factors like cut and viewing positions may lead to difference in size of two diamonds weighing same carat weight. For example, when viewed from top, a pear shape diamond of 1 carat may look larger than a round brilliant cut diamond of same weight.
Diamonds are most loved in their colorless form.
Though, due to some impurities attached to them while formation lead render color, yet colorless diamonds allow the maximum refraction of light thus magnifying brilliance.
There is an internationally recognized color grading scale which starts at D (colorless), and goes down to Z (light yellow).
D, E or F rules the highest prices because of their rarity. Lesser than 1% of all diamonds are colorless hence they are considered superior. For the naked eye, it is very difficult to distinguish between D, E or F colors as they are all colorless with minute difference.
They are then followed by the near-colorless (G- H) followed by (I- J) with G and H being most sought after ones. The spectrum then gets a visible yellow hue from (K-R). Color more intense than (R) is considered fancy diamond (colored).
Talking along the same lines, we get 2 major kinds of roughs in the market- syndicate (yellowish tint) and Zimbabwe (greenish tint). Since, Zimbabwe is much lower in quality; we deal ONLY in syndicate rough. Additionally, 99% of our diamonds are no BGM (BGM= Brown Green Milky; a non preferred quality).
Clarity refers to the grade of inclusions in the diamond. Though a complete inclusion and cloud free natural diamond is extremely rare to find and its price can be sky soaring, yet there are some people who love to buy slightly included diamond; they think that the inclusion best shows that it is a natural diamond. Various categories of clarity are:
Contrastingly, this is the only factor in which man is solely involved, the above 3 factors are significantly governed by nature. It is here that the manufacturing skills, craftsmanship and experience come into picture. Diamonds are cut to augment reflection and diffraction of light, making them sparkle. A well cut diamond will reflect the light to the onlooker, while a poorly cut diamond will let the light escape from the back side. There are various grades of cut like excellent cut, very good, good, poor and fair cut.
The diamond should be evenly and smoothly polished without any visible trace of it under 10X magnifications. As the polish goes on being smoother, the brilliance of diamond increases. Polish is categorized in these fragments: Excellent polish, very good, good, poor and fair polish.
Taking care of symmetry is equally important to ensure that each facet is consistently positioned and sized to its corresponding opposite facet. With poor symmetry, light can be misdirected as it enters and exits the diamond. Various types of symmetry are excellent, very good, good, poor and fair symmetry.
An exquisite round diamond with perfect angles is called Heart and Arrows (H&A). These diamonds are graded with extra specification under SGS. They are not included in the regular cut criteria as H&A diamonds are considered superior than excellent cut diamonds.
Luster is most valued attributes of a diamond. Luster describes a diamonds fire and dazzle. Depending upon the light reflected from the precious stone, SGS grades diamonds on the basis of various levels of luster.
This essential characteristic refers to the diamonds ability to fluoresce under ultraviolet (UV) light. The most familiar source of UV is a black light. When exposed to UV light, many diamonds will give off a peculiar glowing blue coloration. Though fluorescence may be exhibited in various colors, blue is the most common in diamonds. The fluorescence of a diamond is illustrated by its intensity as either None, Faint, Medium, Strong, or Very Strong.
Proportion refers to the depth of a diamond. In an optimally cut diamond, the light entering the diamond will bounce within the stone and reflect back from the top to the onlooker. It gives diamond maximum brilliance; whereas, if it is too deep or too shallow, the light might escape from the bottom and give illusions of shadows when viewed from the top.
A rough diamond can be beautifully cut into various shapes. Most of the shapes are easily available in the market, but only professionals with excellent experience will offer you the best shapes. We, at Kumar jewels present you 13 types of shapes, but we have exceptional hold in shapes like round (brilliant cut), princess cut, oval shape, heart shape and pear shape.
It refers to the lack of clarity of a diamond; all types of internal imperfections formed before or after crystallization of a diamond, all imperfections rising from the surface and developing into the interior of the gem are considered as inclusions. They range from twinning wisps, pin-points, crystalline objects, clouds, needle, internal grains, feathers, to air bubbles trapped inside the diamond. They can vary in size, color and relief. Location of the inclusion also has a noticeable impact on the price and appearance of a diamond. We have divided inclusions in the following categories- black inclusions and white inclusions. Let us have a look at them:
This is an extra facet placed on a diamonds normal facet. Here, we do not consider the symmetry of the stone. These are additional to the facets needed for making a brilliant-cut diamond.
There are some diamonds which appear to be flawless ad clean when seen by a layman with naked eyes, but they certainly show minute amount of inclusions when viewed under specialized glasses.